Hub : Genes

GAB2

Models

# panel tissue h2 h2 se h2 P eQTL R2 BLUP R2 ENET R2 BSLMM R2 LASSO R2 eQTL P BLUP P ENET P BSLMM P LASSO P
1 GTEx Artery Aorta 0.10 0.051 0.00620 0.016 NA 0.024 NA 0.024 0.04500 NA 0.01700 NA 0.01700
2 GTEx Artery Tibial 0.06 0.033 0.00890 0.004 NA -0.003 NA 0.014 0.15000 NA 0.70000 NA 0.02400
3 GTEx Esophagus Muscularis 0.05 0.028 0.00610 0.041 NA 0.034 NA 0.040 0.00150 NA 0.00400 NA 0.00180
4 GTEx Liver 0.17 0.077 0.00570 -0.006 NA -0.007 NA -0.008 0.51000 NA 0.57000 NA 0.65000
5 GTEx Skin Sun Exposed Lower leg 0.06 0.029 0.00110 0.013 NA 0.028 NA 0.014 0.02900 NA 0.00220 NA 0.02300
6 ROSMAP Brain Pre-frontal Cortex 0.05 0.021 0.00020 0.001 0.021 0.012 0.021 0.003 0.23000 0.0008 0.00830 0.00092 0.12000
7 TCGA Prostate Tumor 0.04 0.016 0.00098 0.025 0.018 0.022 NA 0.023 0.00029 0.0017 0.00065 NA 0.00054

Trait associations

Trait Avg chi2 ratio Avg chi2 Max chi2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Alzheimer’s Disease (in mother) 0.3 0.4 1.5 0.4 -0.2 -0.4 -1.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.3
Alzheimer’s Disease (in father) 0.6 0.7 2.8 -0.7 0.2 0.4 -1.0 0.1 1.7 0.5
Alzheimer’s Disease (including proxy) 1.2 1.7 3.9 1.4 0.8 1.3 -2.0 0.6 1.2 1.3
Crohns Disease (2017) 0.5 1.1 1.6 0.8 1.2 1.0 -1.3 1.3 0.7 0.8
Irritable Bowel Disease (IBD) 2.7 6.4 8.0 2.3 2.8 2.6 -2.1 2.7 2.7 2.4
Ulcerative Colitis (UC) 4.9 9.3 11.6 2.6 3.3 3.2 -2.2 3.1 3.4 3.2
Major Depression (MDD) 0.9 1.2 2.8 1.1 0.8 0.8 -0.1 1.4 1.7 0.8
Reaction Time 1.1 2.1 3.9 -0.5 -1.3 -1.8 0.7 -1.3 -1.8 -2.0
Verbal and Numeric Reasoning (VNR) 0.5 1.1 5.0 1.0 -0.0 -0.2 2.2 1.3 0.3 -0.1
Breast Cancer 1.2 3.0 5.8 -0.9 -1.2 -1.9 2.4 -1.8 -1.7 -1.8
Ovarian Cancer 0.5 0.7 1.2 0.5 0.8 1.0 -1.1 1.1 0.3 0.7
Prostate Cancer 0.5 0.6 1.6 -1.3 -0.4 -0.7 -0.8 -0.7 -0.2 -1.1
Age at First Birth 0.3 0.5 1.4 0.8 -0.0 0.7 0.3 1.2 0.5 0.8
Bipolar Disorder 0.2 0.2 0.8 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.9 0.5
Body Mass Index (BMI) (2010) 4.8 6.7 12.2 3.3 3.5 2.3 -1.7 2.5 2.2 2.0
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) 2.8 3.4 6.1 1.0 1.6 2.2 -1.6 1.5 2.5 2.0
Crohns Disease (2012) 0.5 0.8 1.6 -0.5 -0.9 -0.7 1.3 -1.2 -0.9 -0.1
Mean Putamen Volume 0.5 0.6 1.3 0.5 -0.2 -0.5 1.2 -1.0 -0.9 -0.4
Fasting Glucose 0.7 0.8 2.2 0.5 -1.2 -0.2 1.5 0.7 -1.1 0.2
HbA1C 3.5 3.9 6.8 2.6 2.0 2.2 -1.3 1.2 2.1 2.0
HDL Cholesterol 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.4 -0.3 0.1 -0.3 -0.2 0.6 0.2
LDL Cholesterol 5.1 8.0 14.7 3.3 3.8 2.8 -2.5 2.6 2.4 2.0
Lupus 0.3 0.4 1.0 -0.2 -1.0 -0.1 0.8 -1.0 0.2 -0.4
Neuroticism 1.6 2.3 3.8 1.5 1.3 1.3 -1.5 2.0 2.0 0.9
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis 0.4 0.6 3.3 0.3 0.0 0.1 -0.2 -1.8 0.7 -0.4
Rheumatoid Arthritis 1.8 2.5 6.3 -0.8 -1.4 -1.8 1.1 -2.5 -1.3 -1.5
Schizophrenia 1.1 2.4 5.7 1.6 1.9 0.9 -1.8 0.3 2.4 1.1
Triglycerides 2.1 3.4 6.5 1.8 2.5 2.1 -1.1 2.1 1.3 1.4
Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) 2.1 2.5 4.5 -2.1 -1.8 -0.4 1.8 -2.1 -1.3 -0.5
Ulcerative Colitis 3.2 4.6 7.4 -1.8 -2.6 -2.1 1.5 -2.2 -2.7 -1.9
Blood Eosinophil Count 0.2 1.5 4.3 -2.1 -0.2 1.3 -0.9 1.1 1.1 1.2
Blood Platelet Count 0.9 10.0 29.4 2.6 3.5 2.2 -3.3 1.6 5.4 1.6
Blood Red Count 1.5 15.3 23.2 -3.1 -4.0 -4.8 3.1 -3.1 -4.1 -4.6
Blood White Count 0.1 0.4 0.9 -0.3 -0.2 -0.8 -0.1 -0.9 0.6 -0.9
Heel T-Score 2.5 19.6 24.7 4.6 4.9 5.0 -3.2 3.8 4.8 4.4
BMI 2.8 16.9 21.1 4.2 3.9 4.6 -3.3 4.1 4.3 4.2
Height 1.0 20.4 33.6 -3.8 -4.3 -4.9 4.9 -3.5 -5.8 -4.0
Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) 0.7 3.1 7.7 -2.8 -1.7 -1.6 -0.9 -1.4 -1.9 -1.4
Systolic Blood Pressure 1.1 5.4 8.9 3.0 2.4 2.3 -2.6 0.9 2.4 2.2
Smoking Status 1.6 3.8 8.0 -2.8 -2.2 -2.0 1.0 -1.9 -1.5 -1.8
Allergy or Eczema 1.6 4.3 6.4 -2.5 -2.5 -2.3 1.6 -1.8 -1.3 -2.1
Cardiovascular Disease 3.4 11.4 16.1 2.6 3.2 3.9 -3.3 2.7 4.0 3.5
Hypothyroidism (self reported) 0.6 1.5 2.4 1.0 1.4 1.5 -0.7 1.0 1.2 1.3
Respiratory disease 2.5 5.6 11.5 -3.4 -2.4 -2.6 1.3 -1.5 -1.9 -2.7
Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) 0.3 0.5 1.8 0.8 0.5 -0.4 -1.3 0.6 -0.2 -0.6
Lung FEV1/FVC ratio 8.8 44.4 63.7 4.7 7.4 8.0 -6.6 5.6 6.4 7.4
Lung FVC 0.4 2.3 4.2 -1.4 -1.1 -1.7 1.6 -2.1 -0.7 -1.6
Neuroticism 8.5 20.9 34.4 5.1 4.8 4.8 -2.9 3.5 5.9 4.4
Chronotype (morning person) 4.8 11.1 23.0 2.2 3.4 3.3 -3.0 3.4 4.8 2.8
Hair Pigment 11.4 353.0 462.2 18.3 21.5 20.6 -16.7 16.0 19.3 18.5
Tanning 2.0 27.0 38.3 -4.7 -6.2 -6.0 5.5 -3.2 -5.4 -4.7
Hand grip strength (left) 0.4 1.0 2.6 -1.6 -1.6 -0.6 -0.6 -0.0 1.0 -0.4
Number of treatments/medications taken 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 -0.3 0.4 -0.2 -0.4 -0.3
Average weekly spirits intake 0.4 0.5 1.3 -0.3 0.4 0.7 -0.8 0.4 0.9 1.2
Sensitivity / hurt feelings 6.7 11.7 15.3 -3.9 -3.6 -3.6 3.5 -2.7 -3.6 -3.0
Frequency of depressed mood in last 2 weeks 2.6 3.7 8.1 -0.9 -1.4 -2.5 1.4 -0.9 -2.9 -2.5
Hearing difficulty/problems: Yes 0.8 1.2 3.0 1.2 1.4 0.9 -1.7 0.4 0.7 0.6
Relative age of first facial hair 1.5 3.1 4.7 1.8 2.0 1.7 -1.7 1.6 2.2 1.3
Other serious medical condition/disability diagnosed by doctor 1.1 1.4 2.6 1.5 1.3 0.5 -0.8 1.6 1.5 0.6
Ever used hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) 0.3 0.3 2.0 1.4 -0.2 -0.2 0.5 -0.1 -0.3 0.1
Ever had hysterectomy (womb removed) 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.6 0.2 0.1 -0.0 0.4 0.3 -0.0
Systolic blood pressure, automated reading 1.1 3.1 4.7 -2.2 -1.9 -1.6 2.1 -0.5 -2.0 -1.5
Eye problems/disorders: Diabetes related eye disease 0.5 0.5 1.1 -1.1 -0.8 -0.2 0.6 -1.0 -0.7 0.2
Angina 0.9 1.2 2.5 -0.2 -1.1 -1.5 0.8 -0.3 -1.3 -1.6
Medication for hormone replacement therapy 0.2 0.2 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.2 -0.4 -0.3 0.4 0.1
Vitamin and mineral supplements 0.5 0.7 1.9 -0.6 -0.7 -1.2 0.3 -0.5 -0.8 -1.4
Supplements: Zinc 0.2 0.3 0.9 -1.0 -0.4 0.2 0.5 -0.1 0.6 -0.3
Medication: Co-codamol 0.3 0.3 1.0 1.0 0.4 -0.2 0.6 0.7 -0.4 0.0
Medication: Metformin 0.2 0.3 0.7 -0.5 -0.3 0.4 0.9 -0.2 0.6 0.4
Diabetes (father) 0.2 0.2 0.9 -1.0 -0.1 -0.4 -0.0 -0.0 0.3 -0.6
Diabetes (mother) 0.2 0.2 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.8 0.3 0.1 -0.2 0.3
Severe depression (siblings) 1.0 1.2 2.0 1.4 1.0 1.3 -0.2 0.8 1.1 1.2
Pack years adult smoking proportion 1.4 2.1 4.2 2.1 2.0 1.0 -1.0 1.5 1.1 1.1
Impedance of leg (right) 1.2 5.8 7.2 2.7 2.5 2.6 -1.8 2.5 2.7 2.1
Leg fat-free mass (left) 0.1 0.4 0.8 -0.9 -0.4 -0.7 0.5 -0.8 -0.1 -0.4
Trunk fat percentage 0.5 2.0 5.1 1.6 2.3 1.0 -1.5 0.3 1.5 1.0
Hand grip strength (right) 0.5 1.3 3.0 -1.7 -1.5 -1.1 -0.5 0.3 0.5 -1.4
Townsend deprivation index at recruitment 5.3 7.5 13.0 3.6 3.6 2.8 -2.4 1.6 1.7 2.7
Current tobacco smoking 0.5 0.9 4.8 2.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.9 0.1 0.6
Average weekly fortified wine intake 4.7 5.5 8.9 2.5 2.6 2.8 -1.5 1.9 3.0 1.8
Maternal smoking around birth 1.3 1.8 6.1 0.5 -0.3 -0.9 2.0 0.1 -2.5 -1.2
Fed-up feelings 1.3 2.4 5.3 -1.1 -1.5 -2.1 0.8 -0.3 -2.3 -1.8
Frequency of unenthusiasm / disinterest in last 2 weeks 1.9 2.5 5.2 -0.5 -1.1 -2.1 1.7 -0.3 -2.3 -1.8
Relative age voice broke 0.4 0.6 1.1 0.7 0.8 0.7 -1.0 0.5 1.1 -0.3
Taking other prescription medications 1.3 2.0 5.3 2.0 2.3 1.1 -1.0 0.1 1.4 0.7
Age when periods started (menarche) 11.1 26.9 37.2 6.1 5.4 5.1 -3.8 5.9 5.4 4.3
Bilateral oophorectomy (both ovaries removed) 0.5 0.6 2.0 -0.5 -0.4 -0.9 0.6 -0.5 -0.5 -1.4
Heel bone mineral density (BMD) T-score, automated (left) 1.5 3.5 7.6 -2.4 -1.8 -1.9 0.3 -2.8 -1.4 -1.6
Tinnitus: Yes, but not now, but have in the past 0.8 0.8 3.5 0.9 -0.6 -0.0 1.9 -0.5 -0.8 0.2
Qualifications: CSEs or equivalent 1.2 1.5 3.2 -1.4 -1.4 -1.4 1.8 -0.2 -0.7 -1.2
Serious illness, injury or assault to yourself 0.7 0.8 2.8 1.7 1.0 0.8 -0.4 0.3 0.7 0.6
High blood pressure 2.6 7.4 11.4 -2.6 -2.8 -2.8 2.5 -2.0 -3.4 -2.8
Hayfever, allergic rhinitis or eczema 1.5 3.1 4.5 1.9 2.1 2.1 -1.4 1.7 1.2 1.7
Multivitamins +/- minerals 0.3 0.4 1.3 0.0 0.5 0.7 -0.2 -0.3 0.7 1.1
Stomach or abdominal pain in last month 0.9 1.2 2.9 -0.8 -0.8 -1.2 0.3 -0.5 -1.7 -1.5
Supplements: Glucosamine 0.4 0.5 1.2 -1.1 -0.8 0.1 0.5 -1.0 -0.4 0.6
Diverticular disease/diverticulitis (self-reported) 0.6 0.7 3.0 -1.7 -0.8 0.0 -1.0 -0.6 0.3 -0.2
Medication: Atenolol 2.5 3.2 5.2 -1.5 -2.3 -1.7 2.3 -0.3 -1.8 -1.7
Medication: Levothyroxine sodium 0.5 0.8 1.9 -0.7 -1.0 -1.1 0.9 -0.5 -1.4 -0.6
Sitting height 0.4 3.2 5.2 1.4 1.2 2.2 -0.7 2.0 2.3 2.1
Chronic bronchitis/emphysema (father) 0.4 0.5 2.1 0.8 0.7 0.1 -1.4 0.5 0.2 -0.3
High blood pressure (mother) 1.2 1.7 4.5 -1.2 -1.8 -0.3 2.1 -0.0 -1.6 0.5
Body mass index (BMI) 1.9 8.5 13.2 -2.7 -2.4 -3.6 2.1 -3.4 -2.9 -2.9
Impedance of leg (left) 0.6 3.1 6.1 2.5 1.9 1.5 -1.3 1.8 1.9 0.9
Leg predicted mass (left) 0.1 0.4 0.9 -0.9 -0.4 -0.7 0.5 -0.8 -0.1 -0.4
Trunk fat mass 0.1 0.6 1.8 0.6 1.3 0.2 -0.8 -0.4 1.0 0.3
Waist circumference 0.1 0.4 1.6 -0.3 -0.0 -0.8 0.5 -1.3 -0.1 -0.5
Number of incorrect matches in round 1.0 1.6 3.9 -1.5 -1.3 -0.7 2.0 -1.3 -0.6 -0.8
Past tobacco smoking 0.9 1.6 3.0 -1.1 -1.1 -1.6 0.9 -0.5 -1.6 -1.7
Alcohol usually taken with meals 3.6 5.7 8.7 -2.7 -2.9 -2.6 2.0 -2.1 -1.6 -2.5
Nervous feelings 0.3 0.6 3.3 -0.9 -0.2 0.2 -0.1 1.8 -0.1 -0.2
Frequency of tenseness / restlessness in last 2 weeks 1.0 1.6 4.0 -1.4 -1.0 -1.5 0.7 -0.1 -2.0 -1.1
Hearing difficulty/problems with background noise 0.1 0.2 0.8 0.4 0.0 0.2 -0.4 0.9 -0.5 -0.4
Hair/balding pattern: Pattern 2 4.3 5.5 8.2 1.8 2.9 2.5 -1.8 2.8 2.6 1.7
Had menopause 1.5 1.9 6.1 -0.6 -1.2 -1.5 0.4 -2.5 -1.1 -1.3
Had other major operations 0.8 0.9 1.6 -0.7 -0.8 -1.2 -0.8 -1.3 -0.8 -1.0
Forced vital capacity (FVC) 0.6 2.4 5.2 -0.4 0.5 1.6 -1.7 1.8 2.3 1.5
Heel bone mineral density (BMD) T-score, automated (right) 2.4 5.4 8.6 -2.9 -2.3 -2.6 0.4 -2.6 -2.1 -2.6
Ever unenthusiastic/disinterested for a whole week 0.6 0.8 1.6 0.8 1.3 1.0 -0.2 0.8 0.9 0.8
Qualifications: None of the above 0.4 0.8 1.9 1.3 0.4 -0.3 1.1 1.4 -0.7 -0.2
Financial difficulties in last 2 years 0.9 1.2 2.9 0.4 1.7 1.3 -0.5 0.4 1.3 1.2
Mouth/teeth dental problems 0.3 0.5 2.0 -1.0 -0.7 -0.1 1.4 -0.3 -0.0 -0.2
Heart attack 0.4 0.5 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.2
Allergy 1.9 4.4 7.8 -2.8 -2.5 -2.3 1.7 -1.8 -1.2 -2.0
Pain all over the body in last month 1.0 1.0 2.0 1.0 1.1 1.2 -0.2 1.4 1.1 0.5
Diabetes (self-reported) 0.2 0.3 1.0 -0.1 -0.1 0.5 0.5 -0.3 0.6 1.0
Hayfever/allergic rhinitis (self-reported) 1.1 1.5 2.2 -1.2 -0.9 -1.4 1.3 -1.1 -1.0 -1.5
Medication: Ramipril 0.3 0.4 1.7 -0.5 -0.3 -0.7 0.1 -1.3 -0.2 -0.7
Medication: Simvastatin 0.3 0.4 1.4 1.2 0.3 0.6 -0.0 -0.5 0.7 0.6
Fluid intelligence score 0.6 1.2 5.3 -1.0 -0.2 -0.3 -2.3 -1.1 -0.5 -0.6
Illnesses of siblings 0.4 0.6 2.9 -1.7 -0.2 -0.3 -0.6 -0.2 0.8 -0.1
Neuroticism score 2.6 5.6 9.5 -2.9 -2.0 -2.7 1.0 -1.3 -3.1 -2.7
Weight 0.3 1.5 3.5 -1.2 -0.8 -1.6 0.7 -1.9 -0.5 -1.2
Impedance of arm (right) 11.6 55.3 71.7 7.0 8.5 8.4 -7.1 6.0 7.6 7.1
Arm fat percentage (right) 0.1 0.6 1.8 0.3 1.4 0.3 -0.9 -0.7 0.8 0.6
Trunk fat-free mass 1.1 6.5 9.5 -2.8 -3.0 -2.6 3.1 -2.3 -1.7 -2.0
Hip circumference 0.2 0.9 1.7 -1.3 -0.7 -1.2 -0.5 -1.2 -0.4 -0.9
Time employed in main current job 0.6 0.7 3.2 1.8 0.6 -0.2 0.6 0.5 -0.5 -0.4
Alcohol intake versus 10 years previously 0.3 0.4 1.4 0.9 -0.3 -0.4 0.8 -0.2 -1.2 -0.2
Father’s age at death 0.3 0.4 2.2 -1.5 -0.5 -0.3 0.4 0.1 0.1 -0.4
Worrier / anxious feelings 3.6 6.9 9.9 -3.2 -2.7 -2.7 2.4 -1.5 -3.1 -2.4
Frequency of tiredness / lethargy in last 2 weeks 0.2 0.3 1.1 -0.0 0.8 -0.4 -0.1 1.1 -0.6 -0.3
Falls in the last year 0.1 0.1 0.5 -0.3 -0.0 -0.0 0.5 0.3 -0.7 0.2
Hair/balding pattern: Pattern 3 0.5 0.8 2.5 0.7 -0.6 -0.9 0.4 -1.6 -1.1 -0.5
Number of live births 2.0 2.8 4.6 2.1 1.8 1.3 -1.6 1.9 1.5 1.2
Forced expiratory volume in 1-second (FEV1) 0.2 0.7 2.1 -1.5 -1.4 -0.6 0.1 -0.0 0.5 -0.6
Pulse rate 6.4 10.9 16.3 2.4 2.9 4.0 -2.9 2.2 4.0 4.0
Happiness 2.7 3.3 8.8 -3.0 -1.7 -1.8 0.5 -1.7 -1.1 -2.0
Noisy workplace 0.8 1.0 3.0 1.7 1.1 0.9 -0.2 1.3 0.4 0.7
Qualifications: A levels/AS levels or equivalent 0.2 0.5 1.1 -1.1 -0.4 0.3 -1.1 -0.3 0.9 0.2
Serious illness, injury or assault of a close relative in last 2 years 1.0 1.2 2.6 -1.6 -1.3 -0.6 1.4 -0.8 -1.0 -0.5
Mouth/teeth dental problems: Dentures 0.1 0.2 0.8 0.9 -0.2 0.3 -0.4 0.2 0.1 0.7
Asthma 3.6 7.0 13.8 3.7 2.9 2.9 -1.5 2.1 1.8 2.9
Medication: Ibuprofen (e.g. Nurofen) 0.3 0.4 1.4 -1.1 -0.5 0.2 1.2 -0.1 -0.1 0.3
Medication: Cholesterol lowering 0.3 0.4 0.8 -0.5 -0.5 -0.9 0.2 -0.7 -0.6 -0.9
Depression (self-reported) 0.6 0.7 2.7 -0.6 -0.1 -0.4 -1.6 0.2 -0.1 -1.3
Medication: Lansoprazole 2.0 2.3 3.9 -1.6 -2.0 -1.3 1.6 -1.4 -1.4 -1.4
Prospective memory result 3.5 4.3 6.5 -0.5 -1.8 -2.1 2.5 -2.0 -2.3 -2.5
Lung cancer (father) 0.3 0.3 0.6 -0.7 -0.8 -0.0 -0.0 -0.6 0.7 0.4
Illnesses of mother 0.2 0.2 0.6 -0.1 0.4 -0.4 -0.8 0.2 0.6 -0.0
Forced expiratory volume in 1-second (FEV1), Best measure 0.2 0.7 3.0 -1.7 -1.1 -0.4 -0.2 0.2 0.5 -0.5
Pulse wave Arterial Stiffness index 0.8 0.9 2.3 0.0 0.2 -0.7 -1.1 -1.2 -1.5 -0.9
Impedance of arm (left) 10.2 48.3 60.6 6.8 7.8 7.6 -6.6 6.0 7.2 6.5
Arm fat mass (right) 0.2 0.9 2.6 -0.8 -0.3 -1.4 0.6 -1.6 -0.4 -0.9
Trunk predicted mass 1.1 6.4 9.1 -2.9 -3.0 -2.6 3.0 -2.3 -1.6 -2.0
Standing height 1.0 10.5 21.5 2.7 2.9 3.6 -2.6 2.6 4.6 3.1
Length of working week for main job 0.3 0.3 1.3 0.1 1.1 0.6 -0.3 -0.0 0.3 0.4
Exposure to tobacco smoke at home 1.6 1.8 6.0 1.0 1.0 1.8 0.1 0.7 1.0 2.5
Breastfed as a baby 0.6 0.8 3.1 0.1 -0.1 -1.1 -0.1 -1.8 0.2 -1.1
Tense / ‘highly strung’ 0.3 0.5 1.5 -0.3 0.2 -0.6 -0.6 0.2 -1.2 -0.9
Seen doctor (GP) for nerves, anxiety, tension or depression 0.3 0.5 0.9 -0.1 0.8 -0.5 -0.9 0.1 0.9 -0.9
Hair/balding pattern: Pattern 4 2.2 5.4 10.3 -3.2 -2.4 -2.2 1.1 -1.7 -2.7 -2.3
Birth weight of first child 0.2 0.4 1.6 -0.7 -0.2 0.0 -0.7 -1.3 0.1 0.1
Peak expiratory flow (PEF) 1.4 3.3 5.7 -2.0 -2.3 -2.4 1.1 -1.5 -0.9 -2.0
Pulse wave reflection index 1.5 1.8 4.1 0.2 -0.3 -2.0 0.7 -1.0 -2.0 -1.9
Ever highly irritable/argumentative for 2 days 1.2 1.4 3.0 -1.0 -1.0 -1.7 -0.0 -0.9 -1.2 -1.7
Loud music exposure frequency 0.7 0.7 2.3 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.3 0.6 1.5 0.5
Qualifications: O levels/GCSEs or equivalent 0.2 0.3 1.3 -1.2 -0.7 -0.1 -0.3 -0.5 0.1 -0.1
Mouth/teeth dental problems: Bleeding gums 0.2 0.2 0.8 -0.9 -0.0 -0.4 -0.6 -0.1 -0.1 -0.5
Blood clot in the leg (DVT) 0.3 0.4 2.5 -0.1 0.2 0.3 -1.6 -0.2 -0.4 0.4
Medication: Paracetamol 0.3 0.5 1.4 0.7 -0.0 -1.0 0.2 0.2 -1.2 -0.8
Headache pain in last month 0.5 0.9 4.7 0.7 0.1 -0.4 0.9 0.1 -2.2 -0.2
Medication for cholesterol, blood pressure or diabetes 0.5 0.8 2.1 0.5 0.6 1.0 -0.6 0.1 1.4 1.1
Glaucoma (self-reported) 0.3 0.4 1.7 -1.3 -0.4 -0.2 0.4 0.6 0.4 -0.1
Gout (self-reported) 1.5 2.1 5.4 -0.2 1.1 1.6 -2.3 -0.8 2.0 1.0
Hypothyroidism/myxoedema (self-reported) 0.1 0.2 0.4 -0.3 -0.6 -0.6 0.3 -0.3 -0.6 -0.2
Medication: Amlodipine 1.1 1.5 3.6 -1.3 -1.9 -1.1 0.9 -0.7 -1.5 -0.8
Medication: Ventolin 100micrograms inhaler 1.1 1.4 3.3 1.8 1.3 1.3 -0.4 0.9 0.9 1.1
Birth weight 2.1 4.5 8.7 0.9 1.9 2.6 -1.4 2.0 3.0 2.5
Chronic bronchitis/emphysema (mother) 1.0 1.2 2.7 1.1 1.7 1.3 -0.7 1.4 0.0 0.6
High blood pressure (siblings) 0.7 1.1 2.0 1.4 0.8 1.4 -0.8 0.8 0.2 1.3
Forced vital capacity (FVC), Best measure 0.9 3.4 5.7 -0.2 1.1 2.1 -2.2 2.0 2.4 1.9
Body fat percentage 0.2 0.7 2.1 0.8 1.5 0.1 -0.9 -0.5 0.8 0.2
Leg fat percentage (right) 0.7 2.5 5.2 -1.2 -0.8 -2.1 1.1 -2.3 -1.3 -1.6
Arm fat-free mass (right) 1.8 9.6 12.8 -2.9 -3.5 -3.6 3.4 -2.6 -2.6 -2.9
Exposure to tobacco smoke outside home 0.6 0.8 2.8 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 1.4 0.7 -1.7 0.6
Comparative body size at age 10 0.6 1.6 4.4 -2.1 -1.3 -1.4 0.9 -1.3 0.5 -0.3
Number of full brothers 2.6 3.3 8.6 -0.4 -1.6 -2.1 0.6 -2.9 -1.9 -1.8
Worry too long after embarrassment 2.3 3.9 10.0 -3.2 -1.9 -1.8 1.7 -1.0 -2.0 -1.6
Seen a psychiatrist for nerves, anxiety, tension or depression 1.3 1.6 3.1 1.3 1.6 0.7 -1.8 1.3 1.3 0.3
Wheeze or whistling in the chest in last year 1.7 3.0 10.0 3.2 2.0 1.3 -0.1 1.6 0.7 1.5
Number of children fathered 0.5 0.5 1.3 -0.0 -1.2 -0.7 0.1 -1.1 -0.5 -0.6
Reason for reducing amount of alcohol drunk: Health precaution 0.5 0.6 1.6 -0.7 0.1 1.2 0.2 0.0 1.3 0.7
Age at first live birth 0.7 1.3 2.6 -0.6 0.2 1.3 -1.0 1.0 1.6 1.6
Pulse wave peak to peak time 0.9 1.1 3.0 0.1 -0.1 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.7 1.1
Health satisfaction 0.4 0.5 1.6 -0.6 -0.1 -0.7 -0.2 -0.5 -1.3 -0.8
Shortness of breath walking on level ground 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.7 0.5 -0.4 0.2 0.1 0.1
Qualifications: College or University degree 0.2 0.7 3.0 -0.7 0.2 0.9 -1.7 -0.7 0.2 0.1
Eye problems/disorders: None of the above 0.4 0.5 1.2 1.1 0.8 0.6 0.3 0.7 0.8 0.1
Mouth/teeth dental problems: Loose teeth 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.5 -0.5 0.2 0.2 0.3
Emphysema/chronic bronchitis 0.4 0.5 2.0 1.4 0.8 0.3 0.7 0.1 -0.2 0.3
Medication for pain relief, constipation, heartburn 2.2 3.7 6.4 0.8 1.7 2.5 -2.0 1.2 2.5 2.1
Neck or shoulder pain in last month 0.2 0.3 0.8 0.9 0.5 -0.4 -0.5 -0.4 -0.9 -0.3
Medication: Blood pressure 0.4 0.7 2.0 -0.3 -0.2 -1.0 0.4 0.5 -1.0 -1.4
Angina (self-reported) 1.1 1.4 2.8 -0.4 -1.2 -1.5 1.0 -0.2 -1.4 -1.7
Migraine (self-reported) 3.4 4.3 9.2 3.0 1.7 2.2 -0.4 2.2 1.7 2.2
Medication: Ibuprofen 0.2 0.2 0.6 -0.6 -0.0 -0.0 0.8 -0.1 -0.6 -0.1
Medication: Allopurinol 1.8 2.4 5.5 0.4 1.7 1.6 -2.3 0.3 2.1 0.9
Medication: Omeprazole 0.3 0.4 1.3 -0.3 -0.2 -0.7 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -1.1
Medication: Seretide 50 evohaler 5.1 5.9 12.0 3.5 2.6 2.8 0.3 1.7 2.0 2.8
Mean time to correctly identify matches 1.0 1.9 3.6 1.3 1.5 1.8 -0.4 0.4 1.5 1.9
Heart disease (mother) 1.0 1.2 4.8 2.2 1.3 0.7 -0.7 0.1 0.7 0.7
Reproduciblity of spirometry measurement using ERS/ATS criteria 0.2 0.2 0.5 -0.4 -0.7 0.2 0.4 -0.4 -0.3 0.7
Whole body fat mass 0.1 0.3 0.8 0.1 0.6 -0.7 -0.2 -0.9 0.2 -0.4
Leg fat mass (right) 0.5 2.0 4.2 -1.2 -0.7 -2.1 0.8 -1.9 -1.0 -1.7
Arm predicted mass (right) 2.0 10.5 14.1 -3.2 -3.6 -3.7 3.4 -2.8 -2.6 -3.1
Pulse rate, automated reading 6.5 21.2 28.8 4.3 5.1 5.4 -3.6 4.4 4.2 4.9
Alcohol intake frequency. 0.7 1.6 4.8 1.2 -0.8 -1.0 2.2 -0.1 -1.6 -0.8
Comparative height size at age 10 0.1 0.6 2.2 0.3 0.5 1.0 -0.5 0.7 1.5 0.6
Number of full sisters 1.2 1.4 3.1 1.3 1.8 0.9 -1.5 1.1 0.7 0.6
Suffer from ‘nerves’ 1.0 1.6 3.2 -1.8 -1.1 -1.3 -0.4 -1.0 -1.7 -1.2
Overall health rating 0.4 0.9 2.3 1.4 1.4 0.2 -0.2 1.5 -0.2 0.2
Chest pain or discomfort 0.9 1.3 5.2 0.1 -0.7 -1.5 0.7 -0.3 -2.3 -0.8
Had major operations 0.3 0.4 1.5 0.4 0.1 -0.2 -1.2 -0.4 -0.8 -0.5
Age at last live birth 4.9 7.3 12.2 0.9 2.0 3.4 -1.9 2.9 3.2 3.5
Family relationship satisfaction 2.1 2.5 4.5 -2.0 -1.5 -1.6 0.9 -1.1 -1.5 -2.1
Leg pain on walking 0.7 0.9 3.1 0.2 0.9 1.1 -1.8 -0.2 0.7 0.7
Qualifications: NVQ or HND or HNC or equivalent 0.7 0.9 1.5 -1.0 -1.1 -1.2 0.3 -1.1 -0.3 -1.0
Commuting to job workplace: Car/motor vehicle 0.3 0.4 1.2 0.5 -0.3 -0.6 0.6 -1.1 -0.6 -0.3
Illness, injury, bereavement, stress in last 2 years 0.2 0.2 0.5 -0.3 -0.5 -0.4 -0.7 0.5 -0.3 -0.1
Medication: Aspirin 0.8 1.0 1.8 -0.5 -1.4 -1.4 1.1 -1.0 -0.7 -0.8
Supplements: Vitamin C 0.3 0.4 1.0 -0.4 -0.6 -0.5 0.9 0.1 -1.0 -0.2
Knee pain experienced in last month 0.2 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.1 -0.8 -0.4 0.7 0.3
Hypertension (Self-reported) 2.1 5.9 8.9 -2.2 -2.3 -2.6 2.2 -1.9 -3.0 -2.7
Gastro-oesophageal reflux (gord) / gastric reflux (Self-reported) 1.6 1.9 4.6 -1.4 -1.5 -1.6 2.1 -0.2 -1.1 -0.9
Illnesses of father: Heart disease 0.1 0.2 0.7 0.8 0.3 0.3 0.1 -0.0 -0.3 0.3
Illnesses of siblings: Diabetes 0.3 0.4 1.8 -0.4 -0.4 -0.2 1.4 -0.1 -0.5 -0.4
Smoking status: Previous 0.6 0.9 1.5 0.7 1.0 1.1 -0.6 0.6 1.2 1.0
Forced expiratory volume in 1-second (FEV1), predicted 0.2 0.5 2.4 -1.5 -0.7 -0.2 0.3 -0.6 -0.5 -0.1
Whole body fat-free mass 0.8 4.4 5.8 -2.3 -2.4 -2.3 2.4 -1.9 -1.4 -1.8
Leg fat-free mass (right) 0.2 0.9 1.4 -1.1 -0.9 -1.2 0.7 -1.2 -0.5 -0.9
Arm fat percentage (left) 0.1 0.5 1.6 0.3 1.2 0.0 -0.8 -0.6 0.8 0.3
Average weekly red wine intake 0.4 0.6 1.6 -0.2 -0.3 0.5 -1.0 -0.5 1.3 1.1
Handedness (chirality/laterality): Left-handed 0.4 0.5 1.3 0.1 0.4 0.7 -0.2 -0.3 1.1 1.1
Mood swings 1.1 2.1 5.8 -1.3 -1.2 -1.5 0.9 0.1 -2.4 -1.7
Loneliness, isolation 3.3 4.5 9.8 0.8 -0.6 -2.6 2.7 -0.5 -3.1 -2.6
Long-standing illness, disability or infirmity 2.2 3.4 12.2 3.5 2.3 1.1 -1.0 1.2 1.1 1.2
Ever had bowel cancer screening 1.0 1.1 2.6 1.3 0.3 1.3 -0.1 0.8 1.0 1.6
Diabetes diagnosed by doctor 0.2 0.3 0.9 -0.5 -0.5 0.3 0.9 -0.6 0.5 0.6
Ever had stillbirth, spontaneous miscarriage or termination 0.9 1.0 3.6 -0.4 -0.2 -1.2 0.4 -0.3 -1.2 -1.9
Friendships satisfaction 4.7 5.8 10.7 -3.3 -2.8 -2.5 1.5 -1.6 -2.0 -2.8
Qualifications: nursing, teaching 0.2 0.3 1.5 -0.2 -0.5 0.1 0.6 -1.2 0.3 -0.1
Commuting to job workplace: Walk 1.4 1.5 2.2 -1.5 -1.5 -1.1 1.0 -0.5 -1.4 -1.3
Eye problems/disorders: Cataract 0.4 0.4 1.8 -0.1 -0.4 -0.3 -0.7 -0.6 -1.4 0.0
Mouth/teeth dental problems: Mouth ulcers 0.3 0.4 1.5 0.8 0.8 0.1 -1.2 0.4 -0.1 0.2
Medication for cholesterol 1.3 1.9 4.7 0.8 1.5 1.4 -1.3 2.2 0.9 1.1
Medication: Laxatives (e.g. Dulcolax, Senokot) 0.2 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.0 -0.9 0.1 -0.1 0.5 -0.7
Back pain experienced in last month 0.5 0.7 2.1 0.4 -0.3 -1.4 0.6 0.1 -0.9 -1.2
Mineral and other dietary supplements 0.4 0.5 1.5 -0.0 -0.4 -0.8 0.2 0.4 -1.2 -1.0
Breast cancer (self-reported) 1.0 1.1 3.5 -1.1 -1.4 -0.9 -0.1 -1.9 -0.6 -0.5
Asthma (self-reported) 3.6 7.2 13.9 3.7 3.0 2.9 -1.8 2.1 2.0 2.8
Osteoporosis (self-reported) 1.3 1.6 4.7 2.2 0.6 1.3 0.7 1.4 0.5 1.2
Osteoarthritis (self-reported) 1.4 1.8 4.8 2.2 1.7 0.6 -0.4 1.6 1.0 0.5
Medication: Aspirin 0.5 0.7 1.4 -0.3 -1.1 -1.2 1.0 -0.6 -0.3 -0.6
Medication: Gliclazide 0.5 0.6 1.1 -1.0 -1.1 -0.6 0.6 -1.1 -0.2 -0.5
Illnesses of father: None of the above (group 1) 0.5 0.6 2.4 -0.1 0.4 0.8 -0.1 0.1 1.5 0.9
Smoking status: Current 0.6 1.0 4.9 2.2 0.6 0.5 -0.1 1.0 0.2 0.8
Forced expiratory volume in 1-second (FEV1), predicted percentage 1.1 2.3 4.6 -2.1 -1.7 -1.8 0.4 -1.0 -1.1 -1.7
Whole body water mass 0.8 4.4 5.7 -2.4 -2.4 -2.2 2.4 -2.0 -1.5 -1.8
Leg predicted mass (right) 0.2 0.9 1.4 -1.1 -0.8 -1.2 0.8 -1.2 -0.5 -0.9
Arm fat mass (left) 0.2 0.9 2.1 -0.8 -0.4 -1.4 0.7 -1.3 -0.6 -1.0
Number of self-reported non-cancer illnesses 0.9 1.5 2.6 1.6 1.6 1.1 -0.8 1.3 0.6 1.1
Average weekly champagne plus white wine intake 0.8 1.1 3.6 -0.2 1.0 0.9 -0.4 1.3 1.9 0.3
Miserableness 2.3 4.1 9.5 -3.1 -1.7 -2.4 0.5 -1.1 -1.9 -2.3
Guilty feelings 3.1 4.6 9.5 -3.1 -2.2 -1.9 1.5 -1.9 -2.3 -1.7
Wears glasses or contact lenses 1.3 1.5 4.9 0.7 1.8 1.3 -2.2 -0.2 0.5 0.4
Ever taken oral contraceptive pill 0.9 1.0 1.7 0.4 1.3 1.2 -0.7 1.2 0.9 1.0
Hearing aid user 0.8 0.9 2.2 1.2 1.4 0.3 -1.5 0.6 0.4 -0.2
Mother’s age at death 0.7 0.9 2.2 -1.5 -0.5 0.4 -1.2 -1.5 0.3 0.4
Financial situation satisfaction 0.2 0.2 1.1 -0.1 0.2 0.0 0.3 0.4 -1.1 -0.1
Tinnitus: Yes, now most or all of the time 2.4 2.8 4.3 0.6 1.4 1.7 -2.1 1.7 2.0 1.8
Commuting to job workplace: Public transport 0.3 0.4 0.8 -0.6 0.1 0.5 -0.9 0.5 0.3 0.8
Eye problems/disorders: Glaucoma 0.8 0.9 4.0 -2.0 -0.9 -0.7 0.3 -0.7 -0.3 -0.6
Medication: Blood pressure 1.6 3.2 6.1 -1.4 -2.1 -1.7 1.6 -2.5 -1.4 -1.5
Pain type(s) experienced in last month: Hip pain 0.5 0.6 1.8 1.3 1.2 0.5 -0.3 0.0 0.5 0.5
Supplements: Fish oil (including cod liver oil) 0.2 0.3 1.2 -0.1 0.4 0.2 -0.2 -0.6 1.1 0.1
High cholesterol (Self-reported) 1.0 1.7 3.4 -1.3 -1.9 -1.4 1.3 -1.0 -0.7 -1.3
Medication: Bendroflumethiazide 0.2 0.2 1.6 0.1 0.3 0.1 -0.1 1.3 0.2 -0.0
Medication: Paracetamol 0.2 0.3 0.6 0.8 0.6 -0.4 -0.6 0.4 -0.2 -0.4
Medication: Lisinopril 0.1 0.1 0.3 -0.1 0.3 0.3 -0.5 0.6 0.0 -0.3
Medication: Atorvastatin 2.2 2.7 5.0 -1.7 -2.0 -2.2 0.9 -0.8 -1.6 -1.8
Illnesses of father: High blood pressure 0.4 0.5 2.3 -0.4 -0.2 -0.6 -0.1 0.4 -1.5 -0.8
Alcohol drinker status: Never 0.4 0.4 1.8 1.3 -0.5 0.0 0.9 0.1 -0.4 -0.1
Ever smoked 0.4 0.8 1.5 0.7 0.8 1.0 -0.6 -0.3 1.1 1.2
Basal metabolic rate 0.6 3.4 4.4 -2.0 -2.0 -2.1 2.0 -1.8 -1.3 -1.6
Leg fat percentage (left) 1.2 4.6 8.6 -1.4 -1.3 -2.9 1.5 -2.8 -2.0 -2.5
Arm fat-free mass (left) 1.7 8.7 10.9 -2.9 -3.2 -3.3 3.3 -2.8 -2.4 -2.7
Number of operations (self-reported) 1.0 1.4 3.1 -0.4 -1.0 -1.7 -0.3 -0.6 -1.5 -1.8
Average weekly beer plus cider intake 0.4 0.6 1.3 0.6 0.6 1.1 0.2 1.0 -0.6 1.0
Irritability 3.8 6.5 13.7 -2.2 -2.5 -3.0 1.7 -1.1 -3.7 -2.8
Risk taking 0.3 0.4 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.6 -0.1 0.5 -0.1 0.5
Ever had prostate specific antigen (PSA) test 0.3 0.3 1.3 -0.5 -1.1 -0.1 0.6 -0.5 -0.1 0.2
Fractured/broken bones in last 5 years 3.1 4.0 6.6 2.6 1.2 2.3 -0.9 1.5 2.5 2.3
Age started oral contraceptive pill 3.0 3.7 5.7 2.4 1.8 2.0 -2.3 0.9 1.9 1.9
Diastolic blood pressure, automated reading 4.1 12.8 22.2 -4.0 -4.0 -3.7 4.7 -1.6 -3.3 -2.9
Ever depressed for a whole week 1.9 2.4 6.1 0.7 1.7 1.2 -2.5 0.6 2.1 1.0
Unable to work because of sickness or disability 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.1 -0.0 -0.3 0.5
Commuting to job workplace: Cycle 0.3 0.4 1.5 0.7 0.7 0.2 -1.2 -0.1 0.2 0.2
Myopia 0.5 0.7 1.3 -0.7 -1.1 -0.8 1.1 -0.6 -1.1 -0.4
Vascular/heart problems diagnosed by doctor 2.5 7.0 9.1 2.4 2.7 2.8 -2.7 2.1 3.0 2.8
Cholesterol lowering medication 0.5 0.7 1.9 -0.4 -1.2 -0.8 0.7 -1.4 0.2 -0.4
Medication: Omeprazole (e.g. Zanprol) 0.8 0.9 1.6 -0.9 -0.7 -1.1 0.5 -0.9 -1.2 -1.2
Pain experienced in last month 0.3 0.4 1.5 -1.2 -1.0 0.3 0.6 0.1 -0.1 0.4
Supplements: Calcium 1.0 1.1 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.3 0.0 1.1 0.8 1.4
Basal cell carcinoma (self-reported) 0.3 0.3 1.2 0.2 0.3 -0.0 -0.8 -0.3 1.1 -0.4
Heart attack/myocardial infarction (self-reported) 0.3 0.4 1.3 1.1 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.2
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) (self-reported) 0.3 0.4 2.1 -0.1 0.2 0.3 -1.5 -0.3 -0.3 0.4
Heart disease (siblings) 0.8 0.9 4.2 2.0 0.5 0.2 1.1 0.9 -0.4 -0.3
Alcohol drinker status: Previous 0.4 0.5 1.1 0.4 0.9 0.6 -1.0 0.3 0.8 0.5
Pack years of smoking 1.9 2.9 4.9 2.2 2.2 1.3 -1.3 1.8 1.5 1.4
Impedance of whole body 5.0 26.2 32.8 5.1 5.7 5.5 -4.9 4.5 5.4 4.5
Leg fat mass (left) 0.8 3.2 6.8 -1.3 -1.0 -2.6 1.1 -2.3 -1.4 -2.2
Arm predicted mass (left) 1.7 9.0 11.4 -3.0 -3.3 -3.3 3.4 -2.9 -2.4 -2.6